Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a landlocked country in Southeast Europe, at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula, bordering Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro, and with Albania. Serbia has a population of almost 7 million, with Belgrade as its capital and largest city.
It had been inhabited from the Palaeolithic Age. Serbia faced Slavic migrations in the 6th century, establishing several regional states in the early Middle Ages at times recognised as tributaries to the Byzantine, Frankish and Hungarian kingdoms. In 1217 the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Holy See and Constantinople, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the Serbian Empire. the Ottomans annexed the entirety of modern-day Serbia By the mid-16th century. In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region’s first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following casualties in World War I, and the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crown-land of Vojvodina with Serbia. The country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic nations, which would exist until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. After 1990s Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, and after 2006 Serbia restored its independence as a sovereign state for the first time since 1918. In 2008, representatives of the Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.
Serbia is unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, and is acceding to the WTO. Serbia is an upper-middle income economy, ranked 63rd in the Human Development Index domain. It has been negotiating its EU accession, with the aim of joining the European Union by 2025. erbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. The country provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.